Proximate, textural and organoleptic attributes of breads enriched with Ocimum basilicum seeds flour
How to cite this article: Arivuchudar R, Nazni P. Proximate, textural and organoleptic attributes of breads enriched with Ocimum basilicum seeds flour. J Food Diets Res 2021;1(1):25–8.
Bread, holds its place and grace from ancient days as it is the food for any person on any day, at any time, and anywhere. Bread is the most preferred soft diet because of the easy availability and convenience to carry. Bread is usually prepared by refined wheat flour and hence high in calories making it a less prioritized food for persons with metabolic disorders. Hence, this study is framed with the objective of enriching the nutritional quality of bread by incorporation of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour.
Material and Methods:
The Ocimum basilicum seeds flour in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the wheat flour was substituted in the variations BV1, BV2, BV3, BV4 and the bread was prepared by following standardised baking procedures. All the variations of Ocimum basilicum seed flour incorporated breads were subjected to proximate, texture and organoleptic analysis.
The results depicted that the proximate composition viz. moisture, energy, protein, fat, ash and fibre, of the Ocimum basilicum seed flour incorporated bread showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in all the variations, on comparison with control. The 20% O. basilicum seed flour incorporated variation BV4 holds maximum nutrients. The texture profile analysis has shown a significant difference in all the parameters on comparison with the control. The overall acceptability was high for variation BV3, which has 15% of O. basilicum seeds flour incorporation, on organoleptic evaluation.
It can be concluded that Ocimum basilicum seed flour can be effectively used in the preparation of bakery products like bread as a means of value addition.
The genesis of bread is linked with the advent of agronomy in the course of the Neolithic period in southwest Asia. Bread, the most cherished fermented bakery product is prepared using all-purpose or refined wheat flour, water, yeast, and salt by a sequence of procedures beginning from mixing, kneading, proofing, molding, and finally baking. The consumer preference for consumption of bakery products like biscuits and bread is ever growing, while the ingredients used in their preparation has been major concern as they are source of high calories. Bread is a high carbohydrate and low micronutrient food. In order to enhance the protein and essential amino acid content, flour-based baked products were prepared. An attempt has been made to incorporate black sesame flours in bread formulations to increase the protein, good fat, and fiber content. The cost-effective breads were prepared using varieties of cassava flour as wheat flour substitutes due to the high cost of wheat in African countries. Germinated pumpkin seed flour and soybean flour were used as an alternate to refined flour for bread preparation as a means of value addition.[6,7] The antioxidant and fiber composition of the bread was increased by addition of apple pomace powder. Bread was prepared using wheat germ fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 to enrich nutritional quality. Also extruded wheat bran was used as an ingredient to increase the dietary fiber and digestibility. Similarly, in this study the bread was prepared by adding a novel ingredient Ocimum basilicum seed flour, as the Ocimum basilicum seed has been researched as a source of fatty acids, fiber, polyphenols, and flavonoids.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Selection of samples
The ingredients required for the bread preparation viz. wheat flour, basil, or sabja seed (Ocimum basilicum L.), yeast, vegetable oil, salt, and sugar were purchased from the local market of Salem district, Tamil Nadu.
Processing of Ocimum basilicum seeds into flour
The sorted Ocimum basilicum seeds were milled and sieved so as to obtain edible flours. 60 mesh (BSS) was used for this purpose. The flours were stored in air tight containers for further use.
Formulation of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated bread
The dough was prepared by mixing the ingredients namely wheat flour and O. basilicum seeds flour in the proportion 100 g, 0 g; 95 g, 5 g; 90 g, 10 g; 85 g,15 g; 80 g, 20 g respectively for control and variations BV1, BV2, BV3 and BV4 along with yeast (2 g), vegetable oil (1 ml), a gram of salt and sugar and 40 ml of water for 20 minutess by hand. Fermentation of dough was carried out at 29°C for one hour. The dough after raising was manually proofed for one hour at 30°C. The proofed dough was baked for 30 minutes at 220°C. The control bread was also prepared adopting the same methodology as stated above, without adding Ocimum basilicum seeds flour.
The FSSAI procedure for cereal and cereal products, was adopted for estimation of moisture, ash, fiber, and fat. With the Food and Agriculture Organisation procedure, the calories were determined.
Texture profile analysis
The texture of each variation of bread and the control bread was analyzed using P/25 mm compression plate in Texture Analyzer, Perten Instruments, Sweden. The Texture Profile Analysis test consists of forcing a bite-size piece of bread two times in a reciprocating motion.
The bread samples of even size and shape were assigned random numbers. The panelist were asked to score and comment on the organoleptic characteristics like color, appearance, texture, mouth feel, taste, flavor, and overall acceptability of the different variations of prepared breads and control bread. These sensory attributes were measured by 120 panelists on a 9-point hedonic scale with the highest score representing extremely good and the lowest score representing poor.
The descriptive statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS Statistics 16 Software package. The recorded data were subjected to analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) with Duncan’s Post Hoc test (P < 0.05) to determine the significant difference between the means.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The formulated breads were subjected to proximate analysis, Texture profile analysis, organoleptic analysis and the results were analyzed statistically and discussed below.
Table 1 depicts the results of proximate analysis of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated breads and the control bread. The moisture content of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated breads ranged from 26% to 25%, which was found to be less than that of the control bread. The decrease in moisture content is proportional to the increase in the quantity of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour, which may be because of the water absorbing property of Ocimum basilicum seeds. Moisture has a direct bearing on the texture, the shelf life, and microbial growth throughout storage.
|Variations||Moisture (%)||Energy (kcal)||Protein (%)||Fat (%)||Ash (%)||Fiber (%)|
|Control||27.35± 0.27a||327.21± 1.67ab||6.47± 2.64a||8.41± 2.37ab||1.24± 0.54c||0.97± 0.34c|
|BV1||26.30± 0.38ab||321.50± 1.34a||7.07± 2.41a||7.70± 1.74c||1.35± 0.68a||1.44± 0.52a|
|BV2||25.37± 0.44a||322.52± 1.36ab||7.18± 1.37b||7.64± 1.88b||1.45± 0.37ab||1.50± 0.42b|
|BV3||25.38± 0.64a||325.16± 1.60c||7.37± 0.97ab||7.66± 1.67ac||1.58± 0.88c||1.52± 0.33ab|
|BV4||25.87± 0.38ac||325.30± 1.27a||7.42± 1.37c||7.58± 1.98a||1.70± 0.97ac||1.60± 0.45ac|
The calorie content of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated variations has significantly decreased on comparison with control bread, while the calorie content among the variations BV1 to BV4 showed gradual increase proportional to the increase in concentration of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour as indicated in Table 1. Protein composition of all the variations of bread has increased marginally when compared to control as the basil seeds contribute to 17% to 20% of protein. The fat percentage was found reduced in the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour breads when compared with the control. The higher the proportion of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour lower is the fat content.
The mineral composition of the substrates is determined by the ash content. The 20% basil seed flour incorporated variation, BV4 records highest percentage (1.58%) of ash. It is evident from Table 2 that the fiber content has shown a drastic increase in the highest proportion of basil seed flour incorporated variation of bread BV4, favoring the nutritional profile. The dietary fiber in basil seeds regulates blood sugar levels and proves beneficial for Type 2 diabetes. It may be understood that the presence of fiber would prove to be a promising source of prebiotic, helping the maintenance of probiotic clusters in the gut, thereby dwindling the degenerative diseases. The incorporation of Ocimum basilicum seed flour into high glycemic indexed breads may decrease the metabolic diseases which can be proved by clinical trials.
|Variations||Hardness (N)||Springiness||Cohesiveness||Adhesiveness (J)||Stringiness (mm)||Gumminess (N)||Chewiness (N)|
|Control||149± 0.27a||0.99± 1.34ab||0.32± 0.24c||4.1± 0.14ac||0.08± 0.01a||47± 3.41c||47± 3.41ab|
|BV1||164± 1.51ab||1.04± 0.35a||0.67± 0.35ab||1.2± 2.51a||0.30± 0.03ab||109± 21.35ab||114± 22.35a|
|BV2||230± 1.35ac||1.00± 0.41ab||0.71± 0.41a||1.4± 2.34ab||1.37± 0.14a||163± 25.31a||147± 12.35c|
|BV3||340± 2.54a||0.91± 0.38b||0.63± 0.22b||1.5± 2.34b||2.93± 1.47a||214± 21.34b||169± 11.24a|
|BV4||364± 2.11a||0.79± 0.37c||0.71± 0.42c||1.9± 1.60c||3.48± 1.35b||257± 23.47a||257± 22.36b|
Texture profile analysis of control and Ocimum basilicum L. seeds flour incorporated bread
Texture profile analysis of the O cimum basilicum L. seeds flour incorporated breads is depicted in Table 2. Results in Table 2 show that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hardness of the basil seed flour incorporated bread prepared from different proportions. Firmness or hardness increased with the increase in basil seed proportion. Greatest hardness was noticed in variation BV4. As in case of moisture, the hardness may also be associated with the water absorption capacity of the Ocimum basilicum seed flour. Springiness similar to fluffiness, defines the magnitude of retrieval between the first and second compression. Springiness ranged from 0.91 to 1.04 and significant difference was found in the springiness between variations and control bread (p < 0.05). More springiness has been observed in the variation BV1. Lesser the level of incorporation of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour more is the springiness. The gelatinization property of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour may be attributed to all the textural characteristics of the bread-like hardness, stickiness, cohesiveness, and springiness, which are also inter-dependent. Although, the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated variations of bread were found to be significantly different when compared with the control bread, it need not essentially mean that the developed products are undesirable. Hence, all the variations were further subjected to organoleptic evaluation.
Organoleptic analysis of control and Ocimum basilicum L. seeds flour incorporated bread
The sensory scores of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated breads are depicted in Table 3. According to the results presented, there is a significant difference in the appearance, color, flavor, texture, taste, mouth feel, and overall acceptability of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated variations of the bread, with respect to control.
|Variations||Appearance||Texture||Mouth feel||Taste||Flavor||Overall acceptability|
|Control||8.00± 0.66a||8.20± 0.78ab||7.70± 0.82abc||8.10± 0.73ab||7.90± 0.87a||8.30± 0.67abc|
|BV1||8.20± 0.78a||7.90± 0.73b||8.20± 0.78c||8.00± 0.81a||8.10± 1.19a||8.50± 0.51a|
|BV2||8.10± 0.73a||8.10± 0.73ab||8.20± 0.78bc||8.10± 0.96c||8.10± 0.73a||8.60± 0.51c|
|BV3||8.00± 0.81a||7.90± 0.73ab||8.20± 0.78bc||8.40± 1.19ab||8.10± 0.73a||8.70± 0.51c|
|BV4||7.80± 0.78a||7.90± 0.87ab||7.50± 0.70abc||7.80± 0.91||7.90± 0.73a||8.00± 0.66abc|
The mouth-feel, taste, flavor, and the overall acceptability of the variation BV3 was high, followed by the variation BV2. The variation BV3 has 15% of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporation, while 10% of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour is incorporated in BV2. The literature has stated that the Texture Profile Analysis data need not be a relevant substitution for the sensory attributes always.
Breads being a multipurpose traditional food product, the suitability after value addition is uncertain. So before supplementing the developed variations of Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporated breads were put to various tests to assess the nutritional, textural and sensory attributes. It can be concluded from the results that the nutritional parameters were better in variation BV4 in which 20% of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour was incorporated and the organoleptic analysis has projected an overall acceptability of variation BV3 in which 15% of the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour was incorporated. Hence, considering the nutritional profile, textural analysis outcomes, and the overall acceptability the Ocimum basilicum seeds flour incorporation can be considered optimal for further studies. Being a source of protein, minerals, and fiber, the bread formulations can be recommended for diabetics, subjects with cardiovascular disorders and gastrointestinal disorders.
Declaration of patient consent
Patient’s consent not required as there are no patients in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
Dr. Nazni Peerkhan is on the editorial board of this journal. She has no conflict of interest.
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